Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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November 30, 2016

03:08
[Revised entry by José Filipe Silva on November 29, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] Robert Kilwardby (ca. 1215 - 1279) was a Dominican Provincial and later Archbishop of Canterbury, who started his academic career around 1231 at the University of Paris. As a Master of Arts he is one of the first to comment on the newly available Aristotelian logical works, commentaries whose influence is generally recognized. His is also a widely read introduction to the sciences, the De ortu scientiarum. He is however mostly associated with Augustinian thought, especially on the plurality of substantial forms and the...
02:25
[Revised entry by Elizabeth Brake on November 29, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Marriage, a prominent institution regulating sex, reproduction, and family life, is a route into classical philosophical issues such as the good and the scope of individual choice, as well as itself raising distinctive philosophical questions. Political philosophers have taken the organization of sex and reproduction to be essential to the health of the state, and moral philosophers have debated whether marriage has a special moral status and relation to the human good. Philosophers...

November 27, 2016

02:32
[Revised entry by Paul Streveler on November 26, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Richard the Sophister (Richardus Sophista) was an English philosopher/logician who studied at Oxford most likely sometime during the second quarter of the thirteenth century. Richard's identity is uncertain, but he is known to be the author of a collection of logically puzzling sentences, sometimes called "sophisms", entitled Abstractiones. The puzzling aspect of these sophisms is variously caused by semantic or syntactic ambiguities involved in...
02:21
[New Entry by Malcolm Keating on November 26, 2016.] Indian thinkers demarcate the boundaries between literal and non-literal meaning early in their history. They do so within different intellectual genres, each broadly philosophical, but with varying emphases. Within the grammatical genre, Yāska's Semantic Explanation (Nirukta), an early (perhaps 6th century to 3rd century BCE) etymological treatise recognizes the difference between ordinary (laukika) and metaphorical language (upamā). This text, possibly...

November 23, 2016

01:03
[Revised entry by Michael Ridge and Sean McKeever on November 29, 2016. Changes to: Main text] Among the many questions that arise in the attempt to come to philosophical grips with morality is what role, if any, moral principles have to play. Moral generalists think morality is best understood in terms of moral principles; moral particularists deny this. To many people, ordinary moral practice seems suffused with principles (keep your promises; do not steal; do unto others as you would have them do unto you). To many moral theorists, the central task of moral theory has been to articulate and defend moral...

November 19, 2016

02:39
[Revised entry by Neil Lewis on November 18, 2016. Changes to: Bibliography] William of Auvergne or Paris, (ca.1180/90 - 1249), Bishop of Paris from 1228 until his death in 1249, was one of the first wave of thinkers in the Latin West to engage with the writings on natural philosophy and metaphysics by Greek, Islamic and Jewish thinkers that had recently become available in Latin translation. William took these writings to pose errors dangerous to the Christian faith, and his philosophical works are in large part aimed at combating their errors....
02:23
[Revised entry by Robert Roberts on November 18, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] This article discusses several interrelated questions that philosophers, theologians, and psychologists address about religious emotions. Do they have some essence? Is there one emotion-type that warrants the title "religious," or are there many religious emotion-types? How do religious emotions differ from "ordinary" emotions? Are they "cognitive" or "non-cognitive," "rational" or "non-rational"? What good are they? What epistemic import,...

November 18, 2016

06:05
[Revised entry by Jeffrey Moriarty on November 17, 2016. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Jeffrey Moriarty replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.]...
01:52
[Revised entry by Marc Fleurbaey on November 17, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Distributive justice is often considered not to belong to the scope of economics, but there is actually an important literature in economics that addresses normative issues in social and economic justice. A variety of economic theories and approaches provide many insights in these matters. Presented below are the theory of inequality and poverty measurement, welfare economics, the theory of social choice, the theory of bargaining and of cooperative games, and the theory of fair allocation. There has been a good deal of cross-fertilization...
01:29
[Revised entry by Todd Gooch on November 17, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] For a number of years in the mid-nineteenth century Ludwig Feuerbach (1804 - 1872) played an important role in the history of post-Hegelian German philosophy, and in the transition from idealism to various forms of naturalism, materialism and positivism that is one of the most notable developments of this period. To the extent that he is remembered today by non-specialists in the history of nineteenth-century religious thought, it is mainly as the object of Marx's criticism in his famous Theses on Feuerbach,...

November 16, 2016

05:12
[Revised entry by Paul Weirich on November 15, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Causal decision theory adopts principles of rational choice that attend to an act's consequences. It maintains that an account of rational choice must use causality to identify the considerations that make a choice rational. Given a set of options constituting a decision problem, decision theory recommends an option that maximizes utility, that is, an option...
02:47
[Revised entry by Petr Cintula, Christian G. Fermüller, and Carles Noguera on November 15, 2016. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Petr Cintula, Christian G. Fermuller, and Carles Noguera replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.]...

November 15, 2016

04:04
[Revised entry by Nadeem J. Z. Hussain and Lydia Patton on November 14, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Friedrich Albert Lange (b. 1828, d. 1875) was a German philosopher, pedagogist, political activist, and journalist. Lange is a significant figure among the mid nineteenth century German intellectuals who were concerned to think through the impact of developments in natural science for philosophy, pedagogy, and politics. Lange was one of the originators of "physiological...

November 11, 2016

05:42
[Revised entry by Bruce Reichenbach on November 10, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, local.js] The cosmological argument is less a particular argument than an argument type. It uses a general pattern of argumentation (logos) that makes an inference from particular alleged facts about the universe (cosmos) to the existence of a unique being, generally identified with or referred to as God. Among these initial facts are that particular beings or events in the universe are causally dependent or contingent, that the universe (as the totality of contingent things) is contingent in that it could have been other...
00:03
[Revised entry by Katalin Bimbó on November 10, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] Combinatory logic (henceforth: CL) is an elegant and powerful logical theory that is connected to many areas of logic, and has found applications in other disciplines, especially, in computer science and mathematics. CL was originally invented as a continuation of the reduction of the set of logical constants to a singleton set in classical first-order...

November 8, 2016

08:24
[Revised entry by Ian Deweese-Boyd on November 7, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Virtually every aspect of self-deception, including its definition and paradigmatic cases, is a matter of controversy among philosophers. Minimally, self-deception involves a person who seems to acquire and maintain some false belief in the teeth of evidence to the contrary as a consequence of some motivation, and who may display behavior suggesting some awareness of the truth. Beyond this, philosophers divide over whether self-deception is intentional, involves belief or some other sub-or-non-doxastic attitude, whether self-deceivers are...

November 4, 2016

01:53
[Revised entry by Leo Groarke on November 3, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, mars2.jpg] For centuries, the study of logic has inspired the idea that its methods might be harnessed in efforts to understand and improve thinking, reasoning, and argument as they occur in real life contexts: in public discussion and debate; in education and intellectual exchange; in interpersonal relations; and in law, medicine and other professions. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose. It combines the study of argument, evidence, proof and justification with an instrumental outlook which emphasizes its...

November 2, 2016

02:53
[Revised entry by Bruce Hunter on November 1, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Clarence Irving (C.I.) Lewis was perhaps the most important American academic philosopher active in the 1930s and 1940s. He made major contributions in epistemology and logic, and, to a lesser degree, ethics. Lewis was also a key figure in the rise of analytic philosophy in the United States, both through the development and influence of his own writings and through his influence, direct and indirect, on graduate students at Harvard, including some of the leading analytic philosophers of the last half of the 20th century....
02:38
[Revised entry by Clark Glymour and Frederick Eberhardt on November 1, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Described as perhaps "the greatest empiricist of the 20th century" (Salmon, 1977a), the work of Hans Reichenbach (1891 - 1953) provides one of the main statements of empiricist philosophy in the 20th century. Provoked by the conflict between (neo-) Kantian a priorism and Einstein's relativity of space and time, Reichenbach developed a scientifically inspired philosophy and an uncompromisingly empiricist epistemology. He was literate in the physical science of his time, and acquainted with many of its most...
01:06
[Revised entry by Christian Beyer on November 1, 2016. Changes to: Main text] Edmund Husserl was the principal founder of phenomenology - and thus one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. He has made important contributions to almost all areas of philosophy and anticipated central ideas of its neighbouring disciplines such as linguistics, sociology and cognitive psychology....